Muscularity (mesomorphy) has a long-time alleged association with negative characteristics such as assertiveness or even criminality (e.g., Sheldon, 1942). The modern pursuit of muscle has also been demonized via allegations of association with undesirable behaviors; condemnations that seem destined to produce a more formal muscle profiling.Modern "muscle profiling" finds … [Read more...] about Muscle Profiling – Is Muscularity Evidence of a Crime?
The following is a brief synopsis of a talk given at the 115th Annual Convention of the American Psychological Association (APA) in San Francisco, CA on August 19, 2007.Existing research on substance use has had little impact on the public or researchers’ view of anabolic/androgenic steroids (AAS) and their effects. One reason is morality: It is obvious that, standing in … [Read more...] about Anabolic Steroids and Aggression
The following is an overview of the scientific literature on the relationship between anabolic-androgenic steroids (AAS) and aggression. It is intended as a brief informational review without references to the larger literature from which it draws. A more in-depth review of these issues can be found in a series of articles on this topic I wrote several years ago that are … [Read more...] about Chris Benoit Tragedy – Anabolic Steroids, Aggression and Violence
Discussions of the potential role of anabolic-androgenic steroids (AAS) in suicide surfaced recently when AAS and their use among professional athletes were blamed for several suicides of young adult males. These allegations inspired a congressional investigation and renewed anti-steroid rhetoric, but little dispassionate evaluation. The testimony of experts and grieving … [Read more...] about Anabolic Steroids and Suicide – A Brief Review of the Evidence
Findings regarding the AAS use and aggression relationship are inconsistent and vary with the nature of the study and design. Although widely accepted as fact, a review finds little, if any, strong evidence for a direct causal relationship. This may, in part, stem from confusion regarding the specific questions that are answerable by various research designs. For instance, … [Read more...] about Anabolic Steroids and Aggression, Part 2: Does the Evidence Support a Causal Inference?
The association between the use of anabolic-androgenic steroids (hereinafter referred to as "anabolic steroids" or "steroids") and aggression ("’roid rage") has been widely accepted in the culture in general, the mainstream media, and the resistance training subculture. This view has been bolstered by the use of anabolic steroid "induced" rage as a legal defense (Pope & … [Read more...] about Anabolic Steroids and Aggression, Part 1 A Review of the Evidence