IMO, the signs and symptoms attributed to AAS dependency are due to Anabolic-Androgenic Steroid Induced hypogonadism (ASIH). In order for studies on AAS dependency to be minimally credible, they must include for the monitoring of hypogonadism. Further, treatments aimed at preventing or mitigating ASIH will prove beneficial to stop AAS use. There are added benefits, including the retention of muscle mass and strength important for many chronic diseases and ageing. The association of AAS with adverse psychological and behavioral effects is extensive. Historically, researchers went so far as to categorically state that AAS are without any evidence upon muscle going so far as to argue that there is saturation of the androgen receptor with eugonadal levels of testosterone. This attitude spurned the concept that the large doses commonly used by nonprescription AAS users indicate that the drug use is for actions other than their normal physiological effects, implying an addictive nature to AAS, with the signs and symptoms after AAS cessation indications of AAS withdrawal. Upon nonprescription AAS cessation, psychological disturbances include aggressiveness, depression, anxiousness, potency problems (libido), sleep disorders, violent behavior, rage, and suicidal ideation. The two most widely-accepted standards for defining, classifying and diagnosing drug abuse and dependence are the Diagnostic Statistical Manual IV (DSM-IV) and the International Classification of Diseases, Volume 10 (ICD-10). The Diagnostic Statistical Manual IV (DSM IV) and the International Classification of Diseases, Volume 10 (ICD 10) differ in the way they regard Anabolic-Androgenic Steroids' (AAS) potential for producing dependence. DSM IV regards AAS as potentially dependence producing (this is true for ALL drugs) and ICD 10 regards them as non-dependence producing. This difference in approach towards AAS prompts debate as to whether or not AAS are dependence-producing substances. The main work in this area has been conducted by Brower et al. who investigated the existence of a "steroid dependency syndrome" and classified subjects as dependent on AAS using an adaptation of the DSM-III-R criteria for dependence on psychoactive substances, which differ only slightly from those of DSM-IV. In 2002, Brower summarizes the literature on AAS abuse and dependence and reports of at least 165 cases of addiction or dependence in the medical literature. Brower also concludes no cases of dependence have been associated with legitimate prescriptions of AAS used at therapeutic doses for medical purposes. According to Brower, individuals who use high doses of AAS over prolonged periods may develop withdrawal symptoms that include fatigue, depressed mood, restlessness, anhedonia, impaired concentration, increased aggression, anorexia, insomnia, decreased libido, self-image dissatisfaction, androgen desire, headaches, suicidal ideation, decrease in size/weight/strength, and feeling depressed/down/unhappy due to size loss when they stop taking AAS and these withdrawal effects may contribute to a syndrome of dependence. The patient with hypogonadism may experience almost all of these above symptoms. Rather than diagnosing substance abuse or dependence the criteria in use by these investigators is the patient examination for hypogonadism. In 1990, the National Institute of Drug Abuse (NIDA) published an extensive monograph on anabolic steroid abuse (45). This monograph represents a “state-of-the-art” information resource concerning anabolic steroid abuse. "It must be concluded at this time that the use of steroids by humans does not meet the criteria necessary to establish that steroids have significant abuse liability as defined in pharmacological terms." The conclusion from this monograph is anabolic steroids do not satisfy the criteria for abuse potential. Echoing this opinion is a report from President’s Council on Physical Fitness. In 1994, evidence review of the published literature states, "Despite increasing clinical descriptive data on anabolic steroid withdrawal, dependence, and abuse, there are insufficient substantial basic or clinical research data to support the inclusion of these syndromes in DSM-IV." In the intervening eighteen years since the original findings, there is nothing in the published scientific literature to change these conclusions. There are few, if any, well-controlled investigations or studies on the dependence potential of AAS. IMO, AAS dependency/addiction is a myth/fiction.