Diets, Etc.

Discussion in 'Nutrition / Supplements Forum' started by cvictorg, Apr 1, 2011.

  1. cvictorg

    cvictorg Member

    A paleolithic diet is more satiating per calorie than a mediterranean-like diet
    http://www.nutritionandmetabolism.com/content/pdf/1743-7075-7-85.pdf

    A paleolithic diet is more satiating per calorie than a mediterranean-like diet in individuals with ischemic heart disease

    Results: The Paleolithic group were as satiated as the Mediterranean group but consumed less energy per day (5.8 MJ/day vs. 7.6 MJ/day, Paleolithic vs. Mediterranean, p = 0.04). Consequently, the quotients of mean change in satiety during meal and mean consumed energy from food and drink were higher in the Paleolithic group (p = 0.03). Also, there was a strong trend for greater Satiety Quotient for energy in the Paleolithic group (p = 0.057). Leptin decreased by 31% in the Paleolithic group and by 18% in the Mediterranean group with a trend for greater relative decrease of leptin in the Paleolithic group. Relative changes in leptin and changes in weight and waist circumference correlated significantly in the Paleolithic group (p < 0.001) but not in the Mediterranean group. Changes in leptin receptor and free leptin index were not significant
     
    Last edited by a moderator: Jun 4, 2011
  2. zkt

    zkt Member

    Re: A paleolithic diet is more satiating per calorie than a mediterranean-like diet

    The wife and I have hardly missed the CHO at all.
     
  3. cvictorg

    cvictorg Member

    supplement question re paleo diet

    If one follows a pure paleo diet that includes grass fed/grass finished meat, eggs from pastured chickens, organic fruits and vegetables, etc. exactly what, if any, supplements does one need?

    If I stop taking all supplements except grass fed milk or goat milk protein powder do I need anything else? I think the only thing one might need is Vit D3 since we don't get enough sunlight.

    I'm very curious
     
    Last edited: Apr 9, 2011
  4. HeadDoc

    HeadDoc Psychologist; Super Moderator

    Re: supplement question re paleo diet

    many of those I know who are eating paleo also take fish oil. This is due perhaps to the amount of inflammation that inherent to all of the interval training as a part of crossfit.
     
  5. cvictorg

    cvictorg Member

    Paleolithic Nutrition - Twenty-Five Years Later

    http://www.canibaisereis.com/download/paleolithic-nutrition-25years-later-eaton-konner.pdf
    Paleolithic Nutrition - Twenty-Five Years Later

    http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1296979/pdf/jrsocmed00018-0016.pdf
    Diabetes epidemic in newly westernized populations: is it due to thrifty genes or to genetically unknown foods?

    Achieving Hunter-gatherer Fitness in the 21(st) Century | The Paleo Diet
    Achieving hunter-gatherer fitness in the 21(st) century: back to the future.

    Metabolic and physiologic improvements from consum... [Eur J Clin Nutr. 2009] - PubMed result
    http://www.yaboga.com/paleo-metabolic.pdf
    Metabolic and physiologic improvements from consuming a paleolithic, hunter-gatherer type diet

    Even short-term consumption of a paleolithic type diet improves BP and glucose tolerance, decreases insulin secretion, increases insulin sensitivity and improves lipid profiles without weight loss in healthy sedentary humans.
     
  6. cvictorg

    cvictorg Member

    A scientific review of the reported effects of vegan nutrition

    A scientific review of the reported effects of vegan nutrition on the occurrence and prevalence of cancer and cardiovascular disease

    Outcomes included: weak risk reduction for colorectal and breast cancer due to a decreased propensity toward excessive dietary protein intake; possible risk reduction of prostate cancer from reduced calcium intake; cancer risk promotion due to disproportionate intakes of omega-3 relative to omega-6; CVD risk reduction from reduced cholesterol intake and insufficient evidence to consider B12 intake either promotive or predisposing for CVD. Caution is advised attributing dietary recommendations to these findings, as high levels of contention exist between authors due to disparate study results. Greater unanimity may be borne from future trials.

    Vegans were repeatedly found to fall below recommended B12 intake. Evidence strongly supports an inverse correlation between B12 and homocysteine (with raised concentrations of the latter being associated with increased CVD risk), though substantial trials reported no association between B vitamins and CVD. The amount of contradictory material warrants further monitoring, especially with regard to homocysteine interaction. There were no overarching findings with regard to cancer or CVD risk reduction or promotion from eliminating meat, fish or dairy from the diet. Though dietary intakes of protein, calcium, essential fatty acids, cholesterol and B12 varied between the diets, none of the effects were necessarily peculiar to any one type of diet. All aspects (beneficial or detrimental) were able to be incorporated into omnivorous, vegetarian and vegan diets (though bioavailability for some nutrients varied and supplements may be required).
     
    Last edited: Apr 10, 2011
  7. cvictorg

    cvictorg Member

    Low Carbohydrate Diet May Reverse Kidney Damage In Diabetes

    Low Carbohydrate Diet May Reverse Kidney Damage In Diabetes

    Researchers from Mount Sinai School of Medicine have for the first time determined that the ketogenic diet, a specialized high-fat, low carbohydrate diet, may reverse impaired kidney function in Type 1 and Type 2 diabetes. They also identified a previously unreported panel of genes associated with diabetes-related kidney damage, whose changes in expression were reversed by the diet.

    PLoS ONE: Reversal of Diabetic Nephropathy by a Ketogenic Diet

    Michal M. Poplawski1, Jason W. Mastaitis2, Fumiko Isoda1, Fabrizio Grosjean3, Feng Zheng3, Charles V. Mobbs1*
    1 Fishberg Center for Neurobiology, Mount Sinai School of Medicine, New York, New York, United States of America, 2 Department of Internal Medicine, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, Connecticut, United States of America, 3 Department of Geriatrics and Palliative Medicine, Mount Sinai School of Medicine, New York, New York, United States of America

    Abstract Top

    Intensive insulin therapy and protein restriction delay the development of nephropathy in a variety of conditions, but few interventions are known to reverse nephropathy. Having recently observed that the ketone 3-beta-hydroxybutyric acid (3-OHB) reduces molecular responses to glucose, we hypothesized that a ketogenic diet, which produces prolonged elevation of 3-OHB, may reverse pathological processes caused by diabetes. To address this hypothesis, we assessed if prolonged maintenance on a ketogenic diet would reverse nephropathy produced by diabetes. In mouse models for both Type 1 (Akita) and Type 2 (db/db) diabetes, diabetic nephropathy (as indicated by albuminuria) was allowed to develop, then half the mice were switched to a ketogenic diet. After 8 weeks on the diet, mice were sacrificed to assess gene expression and histology. Diabetic nephropathy, as indicated by albumin/creatinine ratios as well as expression of stress-induced genes, was completely reversed by 2 months maintenance on a ketogenic diet. However, histological evidence of nephropathy was only partly reversed. These studies demonstrate that diabetic nephropathy can be reversed by a relatively simple dietary intervention. Whether reduced glucose metabolism mediates the protective effects of the ketogenic diet remains to be determined.

    Discussion

    In contrast to previous studies in which good glucose control prevented, but did not reverse, nephropathy in a model of Type 1 diabetes [2], in the present studies the ketogenic diet reversed nephropathy, as reflected by albumin/creatinine ratios, after it had developed in models of both Type 1 and Type 2 diabetes. The reversal of functional nephropathy was associated with robust normalization of expression of genes induced by oxidative and other forms of stress. In contrast to the complete reversal of nephropathy as reflected by albuminuria and gene expression, histological evidence of nephropathy was only partially reversed in the model for Type 2 diabetes (kidneys from the Akita mice were not available for histological analysis). This suggests, perhaps not surprisingly, that functional and molecular aspects of nephropathy reverse more quickly than morphological aspects of diabetic nephropathy.
     
  8. LW64

    LW64 Member

    Re: Paleo 2.0 - A Diet Manifesto

    Dr. Harris has a terrific blog!
     
  9. cvictorg

    cvictorg Member

    Low-Salt Diet Ineffective, Study Finds. Disagreement Abounds

    Study Finds Low-Salt Diet Ineffective but Draws Criticism From C.D.C. - NYTimes.com

    A new study found that low-salt diets increase the risk of death from heart attacks and strokes and do not prevent high blood pressure, but the research’s limitations mean the debate over the effects of salt in the diet is far from over.

    In fact, officials at the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention felt so strongly that the study was flawed that they criticized it in an interview, something they normally do not do.

    Dr. Peter Briss, a medical director at the centers, said that the study was small; that its subjects were relatively young, with an average age of 40 at the start; and that with few cardiovascular events, it was hard to draw conclusions. And the study, Dr. Briss and others say, flies in the face of a body of evidence indicating that higher sodium consumption can increase the risk of cardiovascular disease.

    “At the moment, this study might need to be taken with a grain of salt,” he said.

    The study is published in the May 4 issue of The Journal of the American Medical Association. It involved only those without high blood pressure at the start, was observational, considered at best suggestive and not conclusive. It included 3,681 middle-aged Europeans who did not have high blood pressure or cardiovascular disease and followed them for an average of 7.9 years.

    The researchers assessed the participants’ sodium consumption at the study’s start and at its conclusion by measuring the amount of sodium excreted in urine over a 24-hour period. All the sodium that is consumed is excreted in urine within a day, so this method is the most precise way to determine sodium consumption.

    The investigators found that the less salt people ate, the more likely they were to die of heart disease — 50 people in the lowest third of salt consumption (2.5 grams of sodium per day) died during the study as compared with 24 in the medium group (3.9 grams of sodium per day) and 10 in the highest salt consumption group (6.0 grams of sodium per day). And while those eating the most salt had, on average, a slight increase in systolic blood pressure — a 1.71-millimeter increase in pressure for each 2.5-gram increase in sodium per day — they were no more likely to develop hypertension.

    “If the goal is to prevent hypertension” with lower sodium consumption, said the lead author, Dr. Jan A. Staessen, a professor of medicine at the University of Leuven, in Belgium, “this study shows it does not work.”
     
  10. zkt

    zkt Member

    Re: Low-Salt Diet Ineffective, Study Finds. Disagreement Abounds

    Increasing salt intake is causes increased plasma volume (water follows salt) which increases BP in certain individuals (salt sensetive) who are unable to compensate for the increased volume in other ways and maintain normal BP.
    I`m experimented on myself extensively concerning this. It doesnt make a bit of difference if I add a lot of salt to my diet or minimize it. No correlation with BP. But my GP still always asks me if I`m following my low salt diet and of course I say well certainly!
    In some people it definitely does matter tho.
     
  11. LW64

    LW64 Member

    Re: Low-Salt Diet Ineffective, Study Finds. Disagreement Abounds

    The ONLY dietary change I made that had any impact at all on my BP was reducing carbohydrates into the 30 to 70 gm per day range. Supplementing with Magnesium Citrate (450 mg/day) seems to give me peroidic reductions in BP but not nearly as significant as reducing carbs.


    This subject was looked at by Taubes in the late 90s:

    The (Political) Science of Salt

    Same old, same old: the science behind the idea that salt promotes hypertension is weak.
     
    Last edited: May 4, 2011
  12. heavyiron

    heavyiron Member

    Re: Low-Salt Diet Ineffective, Study Finds. Disagreement Abounds

    Interesting article, thank you!
     
  13. cvictorg

    cvictorg Member

    The paradoxical nature of hunter-gatherer diets: meat-based, yet non-atherogenic

    http://www.cnpp.usda.gov/Publicatio...0/Meeting2/CommentAttachments/Hahn-178DOC.pdf

    Conclusions

    The high reliance upon animal-based foods would not have necessarily elicited unfavorable blood lipid pro?les because of the hypolipidemic effects of high dietary protein (19 – 35% energy) and the relatively low level of dietary carbohydrate (22 – 40% energy). Although fat intake (28 – 58% energy) would have been similar to or higher than that found in Western diets, it is likely that important qualitative differences in fat intake, including relatively high levels of MUFA and PUFA and a lower o-6=o-3 fatty acid ratio, would have served to inhibit the development of CVD. Other dietary characteristics including high intakes of antioxidants, ?ber, vitamins and phytochemicals along with a low salt intake may have operated synergistically with lifestyle characteristics (more exercise, less stress and no smoking) to further deter the development of CVD. Although high-carbohydrate, low-fat diets are almost universally recommended for the treatment of hyperlipidemia and prevention of CVD, these diets often adversely in?uence certain components of the blood lipid pro?le, including HDL, VLDL cholesterol, TG, small dense LDL cholesterol and apoprotein A-1. One of the present strategies for overcoming these untoward effects of low-fat, high-carbohydrate diets is to replace carbohydrate with MUFA, while keeping saturated fat levels low. An alternative strategy, which has recently been clinically demonstrated and which positively in?uences HDL, VLDL cholesterol and TG, is the replacement of carbohydrate with protein. This dietary approach to reducing dyslipidemia and preventing CVD is consistent with the dietary macro-nutrient patterns found in the native diet of virtually all hunter-gatherer societies — societies which are relatively free of CVD and its symptoms.
     
  14. LW64

    LW64 Member

    Re: The paradoxical nature of hunter-gatherer diets: meat-based, yet non-atherogenic

    There is simply NO WAY that a hunter-gatherer diet was low in SFA.
     
  15. cvictorg

    cvictorg Member

    Re: The paradoxical nature of hunter-gatherer diets: meat-based, yet non-atherogenic

    Although fat intake (28 – 58% energy) would have been similar to or higher than that found in Western diets, it is likely that important qualitative differences in fat intake, including relatively high levels of MUFA and PUFA and a lower o-6=o-3 fatty acid ratio, would have served to inhibit the development of CVD
     
  16. cvictorg

    cvictorg Member

    Luigi Cornaro + caloric restriction

    [ame=http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Luigi_Cornaro]Luigi Cornaro - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia[/ame]

    Alvise "Luigi" Cornaro (1467[1]–1566) was a Venetian nobleman who wrote treatises on dieting, including Discorsi della Vita Sobria (Discourses on the Sober Life). Finding himself near death at the age of 35, Cornaro modified his eating habits on the advice of his doctors and began to adhere on a calorie restriction diet. Twelve ounces of solid food and fourteen ounces of grape juice was the daily allowance he allowed for himself initially. He later reduced his daily food intake to no more solid meat than an egg. [2]

    His first treatise was written when he was eighty-three, and its English translation, often referred to today under the title The Sure and Certain Method of Attaining a Long and Healthful Life, went through numerous editions; this was followed by three others on the same subject, composed at the ages of eighty-six, ninety-one and ninety-five respectively. The first three were published at Padua in 1558. They are written, says Joseph Addison, in the early eighteenth-century periodical The Spectator (No. 195), "with such a spirit of cheerfulness, religion and good sense, as are the natural concomitants of temperance and sobriety." He died at Padua at the age of 98.

    http://vegandonelight.com/docs/LuigiCornaro.pdf
    DISCOURSES ON A SOBER AND TEMPERATE LIFE.
    By
    LEWIS CORNARO, A NOBLE VENETIAN.
    Wherein is demonstrated, by his own Example,
    THE METHOD OF PRESERVING HEALTH TO EXTREME OLD AGE.
     
    Last edited: May 26, 2011
  17. cvictorg

    cvictorg Member

    The 15 rules of the Paleo diet

    The 15 rules of the Paleo diet
    Paleo 101

    Grains are good for us? – Not for any mammal – So why are they recommended??|?The Missing Human Manual

    Worried about Cancer – This is the best resource I have seen to help you take charge?|?The Missing Human Manual

    The bottom line is that with the right diet you can reduce your chances enormously of ever getting cancer. And of course of getting and staying fat – that opens us up to Type 2 Diabetes and all the other Diseases of Modern Life.
     
  18. cvictorg

    cvictorg Member

    Comparison of the Atkins, Zone, Ornish, and LEARN Diets

    Comparison of the Atkins, Zone, Ornish, and LEARN Diets for Change in Weight and Related Risk Factors Among Overweight Premenopausal Women, March 7, 2007, Gardner et al. 297 (9): 969 — JAMA

    ABSTRACT

    Context Popular diets, particularly those low in carbohydrates, have challenged current recommendations advising a low-fat, high-carbohydrate diet for weight loss. Potential benefits and risks have not been tested adequately.

    Objective To compare 4 weight-loss diets representing a spectrum of low to high carbohydrate intake for effects on weight loss and related metabolic variables.

    Design, Setting, and Participants Twelve-month randomized trial conducted in the United States from February 2003 to October 2005 among 311 free-living, overweight/obese (body mass index, 27-40) nondiabetic, premenopausal women.

    Intervention Participants were randomly assigned to follow the Atkins (n = 77), Zone (n = 79), LEARN (n = 79), or Ornish (n = 76) diets and received weekly instruction for 2 months, then an additional 10-month follow-up.

    Main Outcome Measures Weight loss at 12 months was the primary outcome. Secondary outcomes included lipid profile (low-density lipoprotein, high-density lipoprotein, and non–high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and triglyceride levels), percentage of body fat, waist-hip ratio, fasting insulin and glucose levels, and blood pressure. Outcomes were assessed at months 0, 2, 6, and 12. The Tukey studentized range test was used to adjust for multiple testing.

    Results Weight loss was greater for women in the Atkins diet group compared with the other diet groups at 12 months, and mean 12-month weight loss was significantly different between the Atkins and Zone diets (P<.05). Mean 12-month weight loss was as follows: Atkins, ?4.7 kg (95% confidence interval [CI], ?6.3 to ?3.1 kg), Zone, ?1.6 kg (95% CI, ?2.8 to ?0.4 kg), LEARN, ?2.6 kg (?3.8 to ?1.3 kg), and Ornish, ?2.2 kg (?3.6 to ?0.8 kg). Weight loss was not statistically different among the Zone, LEARN, and Ornish groups. At 12 months, secondary outcomes for the Atkins group were comparable with or more favorable than the other diet groups.

    Many concerns have been expressed that low-carbohydrate weight-loss diets, high in total and saturated fat, will adversely affect blood lipid levels and cardiovascular risk.34-36? These concerns have not been substantiated in recent weight-loss diet trials. The recent trials, like the current study, have consistently reported that triglycerides, HDL-C, blood pressure, and measures of insulin resistance either were not significantly different or were more favorable for the very-low-carbohydrate groups.12-16?

    The exception to this pattern has been LDL-C concentrations. Two of the most consistent findings in recent trials of low-carbohydrate vs low-fat diets have been higher LDL-C concentrations and lower triglyceride concentrations in the low-carbohydrate diets.17 Although a higher LDL-C concentration would appear to be an adverse effect, this may not be the case under these study conditions. The triglyceride-lowering effect of a low-carbohydrate diet leads to an increase in LDL particle size, which is known to decrease LDL atherogenicity.37?-39 In the current study, at 2 months, mean LDL-C concentrations increased by 2% and mean triglyceride concentrations decreased by 30% in the Atkins group. These findings are consistent with a beneficial increase in LDL particle size, although LDL particle size was not assessed in our study. In addition, we examined non–HDL-C concentrations as an alternate indicator of atherogenic lipoproteins—a variable not substantially influenced by changes in triglyceride concentrations26?—and observed no significant differences among groups at any time point.


    Therefore, we interpret these findings to suggest that there were no adverse effects on the lipid variables for women following the Atkins diet compared with the other diets and, furthermore, no adverse effects were observed on any weight-related variable measured in this study at any time point for the Atkins group. Further examination of the dietary effects on lipid variables would benefit from analyses of lipoprotein particle subfractions and follow-up of longer than 12 months.

    Conclusions In this study, premenopausal overweight and obese women assigned to follow the Atkins diet, which had the lowest carbohydrate intake, lost more weight and experienced more favorable overall metabolic effects at 12 months than women assigned to follow the Zone, Ornish, or LEARN diets. While questions remain about long-term effects and mechanisms, a low-carbohydrate, high-protein, high-fat diet may be considered a feasible alternative recommendation for weight loss.

    While questions remain about long-term effects and mechanisms, these findings have important implications for clinical practice and health care policy. Physicians whose patients initiate a low-carbohydrate diet can be reassured that weight loss is likely to be at least as large as for any other dietary pattern and that the lipid effects are unlikely to be of immediate concern. As with any diet, physicians should caution patients that long-term success requires permanent alterations in energy intake and energy expenditure, regardless of macronutrient content.