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Discussion in 'Steroid Forum' started by Michael Scally MD, May 1, 2011.

  1. Michael Scally MD

    Michael Scally MD Doctor of Medicine

    Metabolism of Steroids and Sport Drug Testing

    Anabolic androgenic agents (AAS) belong to the most frequently reported group of prohibited substances in sports [1] and have been misused in sports for several decades. The ongoing misuse of AAS challenges doping control laboratories to find new markers and more sensitive analytical methods for detection. This might seem like a never-ending story and leads to the question: what makes AAS so interesting for athletes, and how can doping control laboratories improve their approach in detecting these compounds? …

    Nowadays, the most significant target for AAS detection is not always the most abundant metabolite, but metabolites which can be detected in urine for the longest period of time after administration of the steroid, so-called long-term metabolites (LTM). The discovery of LTM of AAS, along with the progress in analytical instrumentation, has led to a significant improvement of AAS testing in sports. Considering the fact, that LTM sometimes can be detected in urine for several weeks after application, this is an important achievement in the doping control field.

    In this paper, three examples demonstrate the progress in detection of some AAS using their LTMs.

    Stojanovic BJ, Göschl L, Forsdahl G, Günter G. Metabolism of steroids and sport drug testing [published online ahead of print, 2020 May 15]. Bioanalysis. 2020;10.4155/bio-2020-0077. doi:10.4155/bio-2020-0077 https://www.future-science.com/doi/10.4155/bio-2020-0077
     

    Attached Files:

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  2. Michael Scally MD

    Michael Scally MD Doctor of Medicine

    [OA] Are nutritional supplements a gateway to doping use in competitive team sports? The roles of achievement goals and motivational regulations.

    Objectives: The study investigated the moderating role of achievement goals and motivation regulations on the association between self-reported nutritional supplement (NS) use, doping likelihood, and self-reported doping behaviour among competitive athletes.

    Method: Four hundred and ninety seven competitive team sport athletes (64% males; M age=23.54 years, SD=5.75) completed anonymous questionnaires measuring self-reported use of prohibited substances and licit NS; beliefs about the "gateway" function of NS; achievement goals; and motivational regulations.

    Results: Hierarchical linear regression analysis showed that self-reported doping was associated (Adjusted R2=33%) with NS use, a stronger belief that NS use acts as a gateway to doping, amotivation, controlled motivation, mastery approach, and performance avoidance goals. Higher likelihood to use doping substances in the future was associated (Adjusted R2=41.7%) with current NS use, stronger belief that NS act as a gateway to doping, autonomous motivation, and performance avoidance goals.

    A series of moderated regression analyses showed that NS use significantly interacted with mastery approach, mastery avoidance, performance avoidance goals, autonomous motivation controlled motivation, and with amotivation in predicting self-reported doping. Finally, NS use significantly interacted with mastery approach goals, performance avoidance goals, and controlled motivation in predicting future doping likelihood.

    Conclusions: Achievement goals and motivational regulations are differentially associated with both doping likelihood and self-reported doping, and may account for the observed association between self-reported NS use and doping substances; thus, providing an alternative explanation to the "gateway hypothesis" that emphasizes the role of motivation.

    Barkoukis V, Lazuras L, Ourda D, Tsorbatzoudis H. Are nutritional supplements a gateway to doping use in competitive team sports? The roles of achievement goals and motivational regulations. J Sci Med Sport. 2020;23(6):625‐632. doi:10.1016/j.jsams.2019.12.021 https://www.jsams.org/article/S1440-2440(19)31239-3/fulltext
     
  3. Michael Scally MD

    Michael Scally MD Doctor of Medicine

    McLaren Independent Weightlifting Investigation
    Independent Investigator Report to The Oversight and Integrity Commission of International Weightlifting Federation
    https://mclarenweightliftingenquiry...independent-investigator-report-iwf-final.pdf

    Key Findings

    1. Dr. Aján’s autocratic authoritarian leadership of the International Weightlifting Federation resulted in a dysfunctional, ineffective oversight of the organisation by the Executive Board, which had an ill-informed understanding of the organisation. This was achieved through various control mechanisms. As a consequence, Dr. Aján disabled anyone other than himself from understanding the overall affairs of the IWF.

    2. The foundational control mechanism used by Dr. Aján was the tyranny of cash. Cash collected, cash withdrawn, and cash unaccounted for, which Dr. Aján was the sole collector. The primary sources of this cash were doping fines paid personally to the President and cash withdrawals of large amounts from the IWF’s accounts, usually withdrawn before major competitions or IWF congresses. It is absolutely impossible to determine how much of the cash collected or withdrawn was used for legitimate expenses. The McLaren Independent Investigation Team has determined that $10.4 million USD is unaccounted for.

    3. Weightlifting has a history of use of performance enhancing drugs. Over 600 lifters in the past decade have tested positive. While Dr. Aján has impermissibly interfered with the IWF Anti-Doping Commission, the real problem is the culture of doping that exists in the sport. The investigation uncovered 40 positive Adverse Analytical Findings hidden in the IWF records. This includes gold and silver medalists who have not had their samples dealt with. This information has been passed on to WADA for further investigation.

    4. HUNADO is not the cause of doping sample manipulation or hidden results. It has operated in compliance with WADA standards. The investigation found that the procedures followed by Doping Control Officer Barbara Kallo were correct and in accordance with the WADA Code. The source of antidoping issues that have plagued the IWF and sport of weightlifting lie elsewhere. HUNADO and its DCOs are not the cause of the positive testing results or the alleged influence on weightlifters to be tested.

    5. The financial records are a jumble of incomplete and inaccurate figures distorted by a failure to accurately record cash expenditures and revenues and disclose hidden bank accounts by Dr. Aján.

    6. The two most recent Electoral Congresses were rampant with vote buying for the President and senior level positions of the Executive Board, despite monitoring. Such actions are a fundamental violation of the sport’s By-Laws on Disciplinary and Ethics Procedures.

    This Report will explain these key findings.
     
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  4. Michael Scally MD

    Michael Scally MD Doctor of Medicine




    Moments before powerlifters attempt a superhuman feat of strength, they like to hold a capsule of ammonia to their nose, snort deeply, and feel a huge jolt of adrenaline rip through their bodies. But it is going to take far more than smelling salts to revive weightlifting’s reputation after the publication of a truly eye-bulging independent investigation by the Canadian law professor Richard McLaren. Corruption. Cronyism. Cover-ups. Bribes. An omerta that would impress the five families. It’s all there in a 122-page report that leaves the reader feeling they have bathed in a fetid swamp. https://mclarenweightliftingenquiry...independent-investigator-report-iwf-final.pdf

    Think Fifa and double it. The IAAF and quadruple it. McLaren’s investigation found that more than $10m (around £7.9m) was unaccounted for in the books of the International Weightlifting Federation, that 40 doping positives were covered up and vote-buying to ensure the re-election of the former president Dr Tamas Ajan was rampant. And that was just for starters.

    The Hungarian, a senior figure in the sport since 1976, also “ran the IWF as if it was his own personal fiefdom”, concluded McLaren, whose team also established that Ajan was “the sole person making all cash deposits into the IWF’s bank accounts” and “millions of dollars in cash withdrawals conducted by Ajan were never recorded”.

    A confidential witness told McLaren’s investigation team that at one point Ajan even called up the head of the Albanian weightlifting federation and issued an ultimatum: pay a $100,000 fine for doping offences – in cash – or his team would not go to the Rio Olympics. Cue a comical scene involving four Albanian officials taking $25,000 each in cash on a road trip from Tirana to Budapest. At least Ajan gave them a receipt.

    Other countries – including Russia and Romania – did not even get that. No wonder an expert in money laundering quoted in McLaren’s report described Ajan’s modus operandi as apparently “symptomatic of corruption or criminal activity”. Investigators also uncovered a deleted letter addressed to Ajan from the Azerbaijan National Olympic Committee’s president in 2016 – thanking him for delaying the doping suspensions of certain Azeri weightlifters so they could compete. Meanwhile, McLaren’s report notes the 2013 and 2017 presidential elections were “astonishingly bribery prone”, with Ajan securing his presidency “by paying member federations cash bribes ranging from $5,000-30,000 to vote for him and his team of cronies”.

    It is astounding stuff. The question is, why did all this take so long to come out? ...
     
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  5. Michael Scally MD

    Michael Scally MD Doctor of Medicine

    Gene doping and genomic science in sports: where are we?

    The misuse of sport-related gene transfer methods in elite athletes is a real and growing concern. The success of gene therapy in the treatment of hereditary diseases has been most evident since targets in gene therapy products can be used in healthy individuals to improve sports performance. Performing these practices threatens the sporting character of competitions and may pose potential health hazards.

    Since the World Anti-Doping Agency pronouncement on the prohibition of such practices in 2003, several researchers have been trying to address the challenge of developing an effective method for the detection of genetic doping.

    This review presents an overview of the published methods developed for this purpose, the advantages and limitations of technologies and the putative target genes. At last, we present the perspective related to the application of the detection methods in the doping control field.

    López S, Meirelles J, Rayol V, et al. Gene doping and genomic science in sports: where are we? [published online ahead of print, 2020 Jun 19]. Bioanalysis. 2020;10.4155/bio-2020-0093. doi:10.4155/bio-2020-0093 https://www.future-science.com/doi/10.4155/bio-2020-0093
     

    Attached Files:

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  6. Michael Scally MD

    Michael Scally MD Doctor of Medicine

     
  7. Michael Scally MD

    Michael Scally MD Doctor of Medicine

    Screening for Twenty-Eight Target Anabolic-Androgenic Steroids in Protein Supplements Using QuEChERS

    Anabolic-androgenic steroids (AASs) are very potent muscle builders, and professional sportsmen often take protein supplements to improve their performance. Several studies have emphasised that protein supplements may contain undeclared AASs banned by the International Olympic Committee/World Anti-Doping Agency.

    The widespread occurrence and abuse of contaminated protein supplements is extremely dangerous because of their side effects. To minimise the chances of an unattended positive doping test or to avoid serious health problems, adequate screening methods for the detection of a wide range of steroids is essential.

    To address this requirement, a rapid and effective modified QuEChERS (quick, easy, cheap, effective, rugged and safe) method was developed and validated to screen and quantify the simultaneous analysis of twenty-eight AASs in protein supplements using LC-MS/MS.

    The validated method was applied to 198 protein supplements collected from on-line and, off-line markets, and direct purchase from overseas between 2019 and 2020. Of the 198 samples, two samples contained testosterone and stanozolol at concentrations of 0.27 μg/g and 0.023 μg/g, respectively. In addition, 5α-hydroxylaxogenin was detected for the first time in three products purchased in Korea from overseas.

    The modified QuEChERS method was established and successfully applied to screen and determine AASs as a measure of continuous control and supervision in protein supplements.

    Lee JH, Han JH, Min AY, Kim H, Shin D. Screening for twenty-eight target anabolic-androgenic steroids in protein supplements using QuEChERS extraction followed by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry [published online ahead of print, 2020 Jun 22]. Food Addit Contam Part A Chem Anal Control Expo Risk Assess. 2020;1-12. doi:10.1080/19440049.2020.1773543 https://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.1080/19440049.2020.1773543?journalCode=tfac20
     
  8. Michael Scally MD

    Michael Scally MD Doctor of Medicine

    Evaluation of Longitudinal Steroid Profiling with The Adams Adaptive Model for Detection of Transdermal, Intramuscular, and Subcutaneous testosterone Administration

    The steroidal module of the Athlete Biological Passport (ABP) has been used since 2014 for the longitudinal monitoring of urinary testosterone and its metabolites in order to identify samples suspicious for the use of synthetic forms of Endogenous Anabolic Androgenic Steroids (EAAS). Samples identified by the module may then be confirmed by Isotope Ratio Mass Spectrometry (IRMS) to clearly establish the exogenous origin of testosterone and/or metabolites in the sample.

    To examine the detection capability of the steroidal ABP model, testosterone administration studies were performed with various doses and three routes of administration - transdermal, intramuscular and subcutaneous with fifteen subjects for each route of administration. Urine samples were collected before, during, and after administration and steroid profiles were analyzed using the steroidal ABP module in ADAMS. A subset of samples from each mode of administration was also analyzed by IRMS.

    The steroidal ABP module was more sensitive to testosterone use than population-based thresholds and with high dose administrations there was very good agreement between the IRMS results and samples flagged by the module. However, with low dose administration the ABP module was unable to identify samples where testosterone use was still detectable by IRMS analysis. The testosterone/ epitestosterone (T/E) ratio was the most diagnostic parameter for longitudinal monitoring with the exception of low testosterone excreters for whom the 5α-androstane-3α, 17β-diol/epitestosterone (5αAdiol/E) ratio may provide more sensitivity.

    Nair VS, Husk J, Miller GD, van Eenoo P, Crouch A, Eichner D. EVALUATION OF LONGITUDINAL STEROID PROFILING WITH THE ADAMS ADAPTIVE MODEL FOR DETECTION OF TRANSDERMAL, INTRAMUSCULAR, AND SUBCUTANEOUS TESTOSTERONE ADMINISTRATION [published online ahead of print, 2020 Jun 23]. Drug Test Anal. 2020;10.1002/dta.2885. doi:10.1002/dta.2885 https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/abs/10.1002/dta.2885
     
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