Morgentaler A. Controversies and Advances with testosterone Therapy: A 40-Year Perspective. Urology. http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0090429515011061 Testosterone therapy (TTh) has become highly controversial. Yet there are important health consequences of testosterone deficiency, and meaningful benefits with treatment. There is level 1 evidence that TTh improves sexual function and desire, body composition, and bone density. Concerns regarding cardiovascular risk were based on two deeply flawed retrospective studies, and are contradicted by dozens of studies showing CV benefits of TTh or higher endogenous testosterone, including placebo-controlled studies in men with known heart disease (angina, heart failure). Prostate cancer should no longer be considered a risk of TTh. Testosterone is neither scourge nor panacea- it is just good medicine.